初中英语语法:一般过去时

初中英语语法:一般过去时

科技新闻2020-07-20 15:57:14

一般过去时

一般过去式 表示过去的动作和状态。

I met him yesterday. 昨天我碰见了他。

一般过去时的构成如下:

肯定式 疑问式 否定式 疑问否定式

I worked Did i work? I didn't work Did i not work?

He(she it) Did he (she it) He(she it) Did he(she it)

worked work? didn't work not work?

We worked Did we work? We didn't work Did we not work?

You worked Did you work? You din't work Did you not work?

They worked Did they work? They didn't work Did they not work?

一般过去式构成:表示一般过去式的动词通常用动词的过去式形式来表示,而动词的过去式是在动词原形的基础上变化的。动词的过去式可分为规则动词和不规则动词。规则动词的过去式变化如下: 一般情况下,动词词尾加 -ed 。

worked, played, wanted, acted

以不发音的 -e 结尾动词,动词词尾加 -d。

Lived, moved, decided, declined, hoped, judged, raised, wiped

以辅音字母 + y结尾的动词,把-y变为-i 再加-ed。

studied, tried, copied , justified, cried, carried, embodied, emptied

以一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节动词,双写词尾辅音字母,再加 -ed。

stopped, begged, fretted, dragged, dropped, planned, dotted, dripped

不规则动词的过去式变化规律性不强,须多加记忆。

go - went, make - made, get - got

buy - bought, come - came, fly-flew

其结构是"主语+动词的过去式"。be动词的过去式为was, were;行为动词的过去式有规则变化和不规则变化两种,规则变化有以下几种情况:1)直接在动词原形末尾加-ed. e.g. work-----worked; ask------asked; 2)以e结尾的动词只加-d. e.g. arrive-----arrived; like-----liked.3)末尾只有一个辅音字母的重读闭音节,应先双写这个辅音字母,再加-ed. e.g. shop-----shopped; 4)以"辅音字母+y"结尾的动词,先把y变成i,再加-ed. e.g. carry----carried; study------studied.有些动词变过去式是不规则的,e.g. fly------flew; break-----broke; teach-----taught. 这些需要象生单词一样记住. 其句式变化分为两种情况1)含有be动词的依然在be上做文章. e.g. I was born in 1980. I was not born in 1980. Were you born in 1980? 2)含有行为动词的变否定句要在行为动词前加助动词didn't.,同时把动词变成原形; 变一般疑问句,在句首加助动词did,同时把动词变成原形. e.g. I bought a gift for my mum yesterday. I didn't buy a gift for my mum yesterday. Did you buy a gift for your mum yesterday?

一般过去式的用法:

1) 表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间内所发生的动作或情况,通常一般过去式带有表示动作时间状语的词,词组或从句,如:a minute ago, yesterday,last week,in1900,during the night,in those days,the other day(前几天)、once up on a time(过去曾经)、 just now(刚才)、in the old days(过去的日子里)、before liberation(解放前…)、 When I was 8 years old(当我八岁时…)

等。用一般过去时的时候,要表示“过多少时间之后”一般用after,不用in

如: Tom suddenly fel ill yesterday

Tom 昨天突然生病了。

She didn't look well when i lat saw her

我上次看见她的时候,她脸色不好

2.一般过去时也可与 today,this week,this month ,this year 等时间状语连用。但是这些时间状语必须指过去,决不包括“现在”在内

如: Did you see him today?

今天你见过他了吗?

(today实际上指的是今天的过去某一时刻)

3.一般过去时虽不可以与now连用 ,但却可以和just now(刚才)连用。

如:He went out just now

他刚出去了

4.一般过去时表示过去的时候还有以下一些情况

①:用于since从句,主句的谓语动词如果用现在完成时。其后接的since引导的从句一般须用一般过去时

如:It's been over a year since i came back from the countryside

我从乡下回来已经一年了

(主句的谓语动词 has been 也可以改为 is 但美国英语多用现在完成时)

②:时间状语可以省略,前面说过一般过去时常与表过去的时间状语连用,但下面一些情况下,时间状语可以省略---从上文可以清楚地看出来时间状语

如:Did you sleep well?---前文如有现在完成时所引导时

如:I have been within an inch of life ,and didn't know it!---和现在时态对比时候

如: He is no longer the man he was---有表示过去习惯的used to 时候

如:I used to play football in the street

③:所表的动作已经完成

如:I read a book last week 上星期我读了一本书

④: 表示死者的动作和状态。在英语中。说道死去的人的时候,一般用过去时表示

如: Who is the man in the picture? 照片上的人是谁?

He was my father. 他是我父亲

⑤: 有感情色彩的时候如:You asked for it!

你这是自找!

5表示过去一段时间内经常或反复的动作

常与always,never等连用。

Mrs. Peter always carried an umbrella.

彼得太太过去老是带着一把伞。

(只是说明她过去的动作,不表明她现在是否常带着伞。)

When I was a child, I often played football in the street.

Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome.

比较

Mrs. Peter always carries an umbrella.

彼得太太老是带着伞。

(说明这是她的习惯,表明她现在仍然还习惯总带着一把伞)

I never drank wine.我以前从不喝酒。

(不涉及到现在,不说明现在是否喝酒)

6)句型:

It is time for sb. to do sth  "到……时间了"  "该……了"

It is time sb. did sth. "时间已迟了"  "早该……了"

It is time for you to go to bed.  你该睡觉了。

It is time you went to bed.   你早该睡觉了。

would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事'

I'd rather you came tomorrow.

7) wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等。

I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些。

比较:

一般过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在。

Christine was an invalid all her life. 

(含义:她已不在人间。)

Christine has been an invalid all her life. 

(含义:她现在还活着)

Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years.

(含义:达比太太已不再住在肯塔基州。)

Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years.

( 含义:现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去)  

注意: 用过去时表示现在,表示委婉语气。

8)动词want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等。

Did you want anything else?

I wondered if you could help me.

2)情态动词 could, would.

Could you lend me your bike?

9)used to / be used to

used to + do:"过去常常"表示过去习惯性的动作或状态,但如今已不存在。

Mother used not to be so forgetful.  

Scarf used to take a walk.  (过去常常散步)

be used to + doing: 对……已感到习惯,或"习惯于",to是介词,后需加名词或动名词。

He is used to a vegetarian diet.  

典型例题

---- Your phone number again? I ___ quite catch it.

---- It's 69568442.      

A. didn't  B. couldn't C. don't D. can't

答案A. 本句虽没有明确的时间状语,但从语意上看 出,在听的时候没有听懂这个动作发生在过去,因此应用过去时。

10)有些句子,虽然没有表示过去确定时间的状语,但实际上是指过去发生的动作或存在的状态的话,也要用过去时。

I didn't know you were in Paris.

我不知道你在巴黎。

(因为在说话时,我已经知道你在巴黎了。这句话指的是说话之前,所以只能用过去时表示。实际上,这句话暗指:But now I know you are here.)

I thought you were ill.

我以为你病了呢。

(这句话应是在说话之前,我以为你病了。但是现在我知道你没病)

辨别正误

Li Ming studied English this morning.

(把此句变为一般疑问句)

(×)1.Did Li Ming studied English this morning?

(动词应该用原形)

(×) 2. Does Li ming Study English this morning?

(时态应该用原句子的时态)

(×) 3.Was Li Ming studied English this morning?

(应该用一般动词,而不是be动词)

(О) 4.Did Li Ming study Enghish this morning?

常见错误如下:

一 把动词变成过去式易出错

例: 1 They stoped (stop) talking just now.

2 They plaied (play) football yesterday.

答案: 1 stopped 2 played

解析:我们可以记住下面的口诀:"动词变成过去式,双写规律要牢记;y前若是辅音字,y变i加-ed;y前若是元音字,只须直接加-ed."

二忘记把动词变成过去式

例: I fly (fly) kites on the afternoon of Sunday.

答案: flew

解析:我们可以记住下面的口诀:"一般过去时态里,过去形式莫忘记".

自主检测:

(一 )选择

1 She lived there before he____to China.

A. came B. comes C. come D. coming

2 I _____but_____nothing.

A . was listened;was hearing B. listened;heard

C . have listened; heard D. listened; heard of

3 When did you ____here?

A. got to B. reached C. arrive in D. reach

4 I____my homework at 7:00 yesterday evening.

A. finished B. would finish C. was finishing D. finish

5 -He didn't go shopping with you yesterday afternoon, did he?

- _______.

A. No, he doesn't B. Yes, he didn't C. No, he did D. Yes, he did.

6 -I have had supper.

- When ____you____it?

A. have; had B. do, have C. did,have D. will have

答案: 1 A 2 B 3 D 4 A 5 D 6 C

(二) 填空

1 They____(be) on the farm a moment ago.

2 There____(be)a shop not long ago.

3 Jenny____(not go)to bed until 11:00 o'clock last night.

4 Danny _____(read )English five minutes ago.

5 I _____(see)Li Lei ____(go) out just now.

6 He ____(do)his homework every day. But he __(not do)it yesterday.

7 When I was young, I _____(play)games with my friends.

8 When ____you_____(write)this book?

I _____it last year.

9 Did he____(have) lunch at home?

10 I _____(eat) the bread, I 'm full now.

答案:1 were 2 was 3 didn't go 4 read 5 saw go

6 does ; didn't do 7 played 8 did write ; wrote 9 have 10 have eaten

三 在句式变换时易出错

例: 1 We didn't went (not go) out last Friday.

2 Did you had (have) a good time yesterday?

答案: 1 didn't go 2 Did have

解析:请记住口诀"见助动, 用原形."

四易与单三人称作主语的一般现在时弄混

例: He taughts (teach) me English last year.

答案: taught

解析:行为动词的过去式无人称和数的变化.即使主语是单三人称,也和其它人称所用动词的形式一样.

五易与现在完成时弄混

例: 我看过这部电影

I saw(see) the film.

答案: I have seen (see) the film.

解析:"我看过这部电影"说明我了解这部电影的内容,强调现在的情况,应用现在完成时;

一般过去时态的句子只是说明我看了这场电影,与现在无关..

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